The one and only.

Glossary

A-Z

A

Area:

Parmigiano-Reggiano has an unbreakable bond with its area of origin, which includes the provinces of Parma, Reggio Emilia, Modena, Bologna left of the river Reno and Mantua right of the river Po.

B

Biodiversity:

Parmigiano Reggiano is one and only, but it embraces a large variety of maturatons, cattle breeds, lands and certifications; this is why Parmigiano Reggiano is one yet diverse.

Breeds:

Parmigiano Reggiano can be produced with the milk from different cattle breeds, such as Italian Friesian, Swiss Brown, Reggio Red and Modena White cows.

F

Fermented whey:

It is the by-product of the previous day’s process, it is rich in natural lactic bacteria that enable the perpetuation of the typical characteristics and of the bond with the land of origin. For the production of Parmigiano Reggiano, the use of laboratory selected starters is forbidden.

H

Halal:

Halal Parmigiano Reggiano follows both PDO production specifications and the directions of Islamic regulations concerning “permissible food” according to the Koran. The certification, which makes the product suitable for the Islamic market, entails full product traceability and monitoring of all production phases.

K

Kosher:

Kosher-certified Parmigiano Reggiano, for observant Jews, is made at all steps of production, from milking to cutting, in accordance with kashrut, the Jewish religious dietary rules derived from the Torah. The production phases are overseen by a rabbi and checked by Ok Kosher Certification, one of the most accredited and recognized kosher certification agencies in the world.

L

Lactose:

Parmigiano Reggiano is naturally free from this sugar already in the first 48 hours from production since it is turned into lactic acid by lactic bacteria.

M

Mountain:

The wheels bearing the logo of the "Quality Project - Mountain Product" are wheels produced in mountain dairies, the feeding of cattle is prevalently based on mountain forage and maturation takes place in mountain areas for a minimum of 12 months. On 24-month wheels, the Consortium carries out an additional selection based on a hammer and organoleptic evaluation.

N

Natural:

Parmigiano Reggiano is made with milk, salt and rennet without any additives or preservatives. It is therefore 100% natural.

P

Pairings:

Parmigiano Reggiano features aromas and flavours that are different depending on the maturation, which makes it particularly versatile and suitable for several pairings ranging from fresh fruit to full-bodied wines, as well as beers and jams.

Proteins:

Proteins account for at least 32% of the energy value of Parmigiano Reggiano that is also rich in amino acids, essential for the diet of athletes.

S

Silage:

In the feeding of cattle producing milk for Parmigiano Reggiano, the use of silage is forbidden. Silage is a type of fodder that is acidified through the action of anaerobic bacteria that end up in the milk causing undesired fermentations in the cheese.

Smell:

sensations perceived directly through the olfactory epithelium (olfactory bulb). The various olfactory sensations related to cheeses can be traced to 8 families (lactic, plant-based, floral, fruity, toasted, animal, spiced and more) and their corresponding sub-families.

Specifications:

Parmigiano Reggiano is PDO product regulated by strict production specifications that contain all the instructions and rules to rigorously comply with.

Supervision:

The Consortium contributes, in compliance with the directives given by the Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies, to the supervision and protection of the PDO from misuses, unfair competition, counterfeits, improper uses of the protected designations and behaviours forbidden by the Law.

T

Tyrosine (crystals):

White crystals in the cheese paste due to tyrosine (amino acid) formation, found in aged cheeses as a result of the breakdown of proteins.

V

Vat:

The traditional copper container shaped like an upturned bell where Parmigiano Reggiano is produced every day. Each vat contains about 1100 litres of milk, which produce 2 wheels (550 litres of milk per wheel).

W

Wheel:

About 3,700,000 wheels, each weighing on average 40 kg, are produced in the production area of Parmigiano Reggiano every year.

Y

Yellow:

From light straw yellow to deep tones close to amber, Parmigiano Reggiano may feature all these shades of yellow. Colour intensity increases with maturation.